Development of Modified Kato Katz Kit as Laboratory Scale Prototype for Early Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) Infection

Rifqoh Rifqoh, Yayuk Kustiningsih, Jujuk Anton Cahyono

Abstract

Early detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) infection in laboratory medical facilities is one of the government's efforts in its elimination. Government regulations recommend Kato-Katz's quantitative method forthe diagnosis of STHs infection. Kato-Katz's domestic product is not availableyet. This research aims to create a laboratory-scale modified Kato-Katz kit for early detection of STHsinfection by fecal egg counts (FECs) in estimating the number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG).An experimental study was conducted to create a resin template, spatulas, and 3M-adhesive tape as a modified Kato-Katz Kit. 120 Kato-Katz thick smear preparations were done from 30 samples for modified and standard Kato-Katz with duplication. The amount of stool for each was weighed. All Kato-Katz thick smear microscopic examination was done at least 60 minutes by identifying the STHs eggs and counting them.The result for both methods showed no differences in EPG for Trichuris trichiura eggs p-value=0.012 (p<0.05), meanwhile the differences for Ascaris lumbricoides eggs p-value=0.156, and Hookworm eggs p-value=0.102 (p>0.05). Under microscopic examination, some A.lumbricoides eggs morphology was not visible because the adhesive in modified Kato-Katz blurry it, and the Hookworm fragile eggshells made it disappear within less than 60 minutes.The study concluded no difference in EPG for T.trichiura eggs by FECs betweenmodified Kato-Katzas this study product with the standard. It is recommended to improve modified Kato-Katz in further study, especially the adhesive tape, before using it as a quantitative toolforearly detection of STHs infection.

 

Keywords

STHs infection; kato-katz kit; egg count

Full Text:

PDF

References

Allam, A. F., Farag, H. F., Lotfy, W., Fawzy, H. H., Elhadad, H., & Shehab, A. Y. (2021). Comparison among FLOTAC, Kato-Katz, and formalin ether concentration techniques for diagnosing parasitic intestinal infections in school children in an Egyptian rural setting. Parasitology, 148(3), 289-294.

Bärenbold, O., Raso, G., Coulibaly, J. T., N’Goran, E. K., Utzinger, J., & Vounatsou, P. (2017). Estimating sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique for diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm in relation to infection intensity. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 11(10), e0005953.

Calvopina, M., Romero-Alvarez, D., Diaz, F., Cevallos, W., & Sugiyama, H. (2018). A comparison of the Kato-Katz technique to three other methods for diagnosing Amphimerus spp. Liver fluke infection and the prevalence of infection in Chachi Amerindians of Ecuador. PLoS One, 13(10), e0203811.

Elgendy, A. M., Mohammed, F. A., Metwally, A. S., Hamza, R. S., & Kamel, S. (2016). Comparison between Kato-Katz Thick Smear and Sedimentation Techniques in Diagnosis of Faecal-Orally Transmitted Helminthes and Other Geohelminthes. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 46(3), 647-654.

Ganguly, S., Barkataki, S., Karmakar, S., Sanga, P., Boopathi, K., Kanagasabai, K., ... & Murhekar, M. (2017). High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections among primary school children, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2015. Infectious diseases of poverty, 6(1), 1-9.

Jourdan, P. M., Lamberton, P. H., Fenwick, A., & Addiss, D. G. (2018). Soil-transmitted helminth infections. The Lancet, 391(10117), 252-265.

Kemenkes. 2017. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI Nomor 15 tentang Penanggulangan cacingan. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

Khurana, S., Singh, S., & Mewara, A. (2021). Diagnostic techniques for soil-transmitted helminths–Recent advances. Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine, 12, 181.

Leuenberger, A., Nassoro, T., Said, K., Fenner, L., Sikalengo, G., Letang, E., ... & Utzinger, J. (2016). Assessing stool quantities generated by three specific Kato-Katz thick smear templates employed in different settings. Infectious diseases of poverty, 5(1), 1-8.

Liu, C., Lu, L., Zhang, L., Bai, Y., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., ... & Zang, W. (2017). More poop, more precision: Improving epidemiologic surveillance of soil-transmitted helminths with multiple fecal sampling using the Kato–Katz technique. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 97(3), 870-875.

Moser, W., Bärenbold, O., Mirams, G. J., Cools, P., Vlaminck, J., Ali, S. M., ... & Keiser, J. (2018). Diagnostic comparison between FECPAKG2 and the Kato-Katz method for analyzing soil-transmitted helminth eggs in the stool. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 12(6), e0006562.

Pabalan, N., Singian, E., Tabangay, L., Jarjanazi, H., Boivin, M. J., & Ezeamama, A. E. (2018). Soil-transmitted helminth infection, loss of education and cognitive impairment in school-aged children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 12(1), e0005523

Panggabean, M., Siahaan, L., & Panggabean, Y. C. (2016, December). Comparison Laboratory Methods for Detection of Hookworms Infection. In 1st Public Health International Conference (PHICo 2016). Atlantis Press.

Soares, F. A., Benitez, A. D. N., Santos, B. M. D., Loiola, S. H. N., Rosa, S. L., Nagata, W. B., ... & Gomes, J. F. (2020). A historical review of the techniques of recovery of parasites for their detection in human stools. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 53.

Turner, H.C., Bettis, A.A., Dunn, J.C., Whitton, J.M., Hollingsworth, T.D., Fleming, F.M. and Anderson, R.M., 2017. Economic considerations for moving beyond the Kato-Katz technique for diagnosing intestinal parasites as we move towards elimination. Trends in parasitology, 33(6), 435-443.

Vlaminck, J., Cools, P., Albonico, M., Ame, S., Ayana, M., Dana, D., ... & Levecke, B. (2020). An in-depth report of quality control on Kato-Katz and data entry in four clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of albendazole against soil-transmitted helminth infections. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 14(9), e0008625.

World Health Organization. (2017). Guideline: preventive chemotherapy to control soil-transmitted helminth infections in at-risk population groups. World Health Organization.

World Health Organization. (2019). Bench aids for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. World Health Organization.

World Health Organization. (2020). Report of the first meeting of the WHO diagnostic technical advisory group for neglected tropical diseases: Geneva, Switzerland, 30–31 October 2019.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.